Aquascope Facts
Cliff and rocky beach ecology Living conditions therefore vary on different levels along the cliffs. For those organisms that try to exist under such conditions there are several factors that are of importance:
  • The direct effect of the waves and the movement of objects on the water surface can cause mechanical injury. The wearing of the ice can for example tear away nearly all the bladder wrack that is close to the surface in the Baltic.
  • Air is worse than water when resisting and evening out of temperature fluctuations, while the winds can carry away damp air. This can, at low tide, result in an increased risk for overheating, freezing and dehydration.
  • At low tide when sea level decreases, the dryness results in an increase in salinity, while rain has the opposite effect. Furthermore, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, aswell as acidity vary greatly when there is very little exchange of water.
  • Algae can find it difficult to photosynthesise when marooned upon the beach. The further up the beach they live, the less time they have to absorb water, carbon dioxide and different nutrients when submerged.
    Ice on the cliffs
    The ice kills many beach organisms.

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  • Cliffs and rocks are fantastic!
    Zoning and flecked occurrence
    Animals that are attached
    Modular construction
    Variation and change
    Variations in water level
    Wave exposure
    Both cliffs and rocks
    Freshwater and saltwater
    Geography, climate and history
    Organisms life cycles
    Organisms effect on each other
    Energy and the flow of material

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    Bo Johannesson | Martin Larsvik | Lars-Ove Loo | Helena Samuelsson