Sand beach

They are wonderful

Experiments have been carried out on protected beaches where cages have been used to stop larger predators like crabs, fish and birds from taking prey from the bottom. Compared with reference areas, where predators were able to feed normally, it was shown that populations and variety of specie increased.
    Read the chapter ”To obtain knowledge about the sea”, if you want an account of what you must do to decide which explanation is the right one.

Seasonal and daily variations

Shallow water heats up quickly during the spring. It is splendid for those of you who like to bathe, and it is splendid for those animals and plants that live on the beach. Furthermore, plants have plenty of food and light during the spring. Therefore, can most organisms grow and reproduce.

Spring and summer immigration

Last years shrimps and shore crabs - that have taken refuge in deeper water during the winter - return to the beach during the middle of the spring. Adult sand gobies return also to shallower water to lay their eggs under mussel shells. A little later, plaice spawn swim in from the open sea. Here they transform into flat fish that live on the bottom. Around midsummer or soon after, the mussel larvae arrive. They are mostly cockles, sand gapers and common mussels that come. They are very small, about 1 mm in size and can be as many as one million per square metre. Also larvae of different polychaetes, periwinkles and crustaceans arrive on the beach.


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Waves, bottoms and construction

Sand movement and erosion

Sand bottoms as living environments

The art of digging

Sand beach organisms

Food web

Change and variation

Swedish beach life

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Bo Johannesson | Martin Larsvik | Lars-Ove Loo | Helena Samuelsson