Beach living mussels can act as another example.
We suppose that you can recognize two species by their
sticking out of the sediment when they are dug down into the sand bottom.
When you and your friend have visited different beaches you have noticed
the following: When there are many individuals of one species, that we call
A, there are few individuals of the other, that we will call B. When you
point this out to your friend, he replies that he knows why. He says that
it is because the mussels compete
with each other and that there are not adequate resources, e.g. space or
food, for both species to coexist.
To observe and reflect is not enough
Your friend has offered you a model that
explains why certain mussels are common and others are uncommon within a
certain area. You now have an observation (what you saw) and an explanation (reasons
for what you saw). With the help of good observation and reasoning talents
we have completed the first two steps
in a scientific research process, but just these two steps are not enough.
Imagine now that you don't think the reason for the presence of the two species of mussels has to do with competion you reply
that: It is not always competition that is the reason for why different
types of mussels are found in different areas. The explanation is that one species thrives better in really salty
water, while the other prefers more brackish water.
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