Aquascope Facts
Cliff and rocky beach ecology But for many organisms there are advantages with waves:
  • More food is transported to those that live in silted water.
  • The mixing of the water aids the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide and nutrients increase.
  • Mixing also inhibits the occurrance of a surface freshwater layer.
  • The transport of spores, eggs and sperms is made easier.

    Protection against mechanical injury

    Waves breaking on shells

    Wave effect is most powerful the higher up the cliffs one comes. Those organisms that try survive in these areas must have qualities that prevent them from being crushed, torn lose or washed away by the waves.
        Material used for protection from mechanical injury can be divided into two types, either rigid and hard or flexible. Rigid and hard structures are able to withstand force, but unable to change shape. Flexible materials are easily effected so they can change shape and when the disturbance ends they return to their original shape without being injured.

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  • Cliffs and rocks are fantastic!
    Zoning and flecked occurrence
    Animals that are attached
    Modular construction
    Variation and change
    Variations in water level
    Wave exposure
    Both cliffs and rocks
    Freshwater and saltwater
    Geography, climate and history
    Organisms life cycles
    Organisms effect on each other
    Energy and the flow of material

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    © Aquascope 2000   Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, Strömstad, Sweden
    Bo Johannesson | Martin Larsvik | Lars-Ove Loo | Helena Samuelsson