Aquascope Facts
Cliff and rocky beach ecology The grazers, like the predators are also useful, as they help to keep the algae free from secondary growth. This secondary growth has certain disadvantages for the host; weighs down the algae; stops the penetration of light; impairs the absorption of nutrients from the water; it also increases the friction against the water so that they are more easily torn away from the substrate. Grazing snails
Chitons are important grazers on Hildenbrandia prototypus and red encrusted algae. In the picture above, sea-mats, tortoiseshell limpets, small white tubes of the tube worm (Spirorbis sp) and Dendrodoa grossularia are seen.

Energy and the flow of material

After size, the most dominating habitats are the free masses of water (pelagial) and the ocean bottoms, that for the most part are composed of soft sediment. Cliffs and rocky beaches constitute only a small fraction of Marine habitats because the coastal zone is comprised of a thin strip between the land and sea. The total weight of those organisms living on cliffs and rocky beaches is only a small fraction compared to that of those organisms that are found in the pelagial waters and on soft bottoms.
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Cliffs and rocks are fantastic!
Zoning and flecked occurrence
Animals that are attached
Modular construction
Variation and change
Variations in water level
Wave exposure
Both cliffs and rocks
Freshwater and saltwater
Geography, climate and history
Organisms life cycles
Organisms effect on each other
Energy and the flow of material

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Bo Johannesson | Martin Larsvik | Lars-Ove Loo | Helena Samuelsson