Aquascope Facts
Cliff and rocky beach ecology

Freshwater and saltwater

Salt content in the oceans is quite stabil, about 3,5 %. On rare occasions, the salt content in the surface water can reach this level along the Swedish west coast, but usually the saltier and heavier water is found deeper under a layer of fresher water. The salt content also decreases the closer to land one comes, this is especially true in areas with high fluvial runoff such as estuaries. Salt content can also vary between different micro-environments.In rock pools, the salt content can be very low and those that are positioned higher up the beach never attain a level as high as in the rock pools lower down. There are also very expansive salt content gradients, extending from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Skagerrak. Rock pools on different levels
In those salt gradients with the lowest salt content, most Marine organisms canot survive. Here, only Marine organsisms that have the ability to endure low and fluctuating salt content exist. Variations amongst the fauna is low, but populations and total weight of can be very high.
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Cliffs and rocks are fantastic!
Zoning and flecked occurrence
Animals that are attached
Modular construction
Variation and change
Variations in water level
Wave exposure
Both cliffs and rocks
Freshwater and saltwater
Geography, climate and history
Organisms life cycles
Organisms effect on each other
Energy and the flow of material

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Bo Johannesson | Martin Larsvik | Lars-Ove Loo | Helena Samuelsson