Aquascope Facts

Cliff and rocky beach ecology

Three different levels in the kelp forest

The kelp forest´s crown
The kelp forests crown layer. The upper parts of sugar kelp och oarweed are seen.
Algae in the middle layer
The kelp forest middle layer can contain many different specie, but mainly red algae. In the pictures foreground you can see Irish moss (Chondrus crispus).
Algae in the forests bottom layer
At the bottom of the kelp forest there are many different tones of brown, red and pink. They are different specie of encrusting algae that cover the rocks. The green ball is a green alga known as Derbesia marina.
Back Figure 1
Cliffs and rocks are fantastic!
Zoning and flecked occurrence
Animals that are attached
Modular construction
Variation and change
Variations in water level
Wave exposure
Both cliffs and rocks
Freshwater and saltwater
Geography, climate and history
Organisms life cycles
Organisms effect on each other
Energy and the flow of material

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© Aquascope 2000   Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, Strömstad, Sweden
Bo Johannesson | Martin Larsvik | Lars-Ove Loo | Helena Samuelsson